Tamara Llano Astuy

Dr. Tamara Llano Astuy of the University of Cantabria, assistant professor at the Department of Chemistry and Process and Resources Engineering, has been working at the University of Reyjkavik for 90 days under the framework of the 2nd call STSM of the CA17133. She has been collaborating with Dr. David C. Finger and with the SORPA landfill to take the data of waste management in Reykjavik capital area. During the 3-months internship, Dr. Llano developed several models in Aspen Plus to simulate under different process conditions. Several configurations of anaerobic digestion were simulated under different temperature regimes, testing two kind of reactors, using one or two consecutive reactions steps, operating with different waste fractions (lignocellulosic biomass, food waste, municipal solid waste or co-digestion of two most generated fractions in Reykjavik). Several technical, environmental and economic indicators were compared and analyzed in all simulated scenarios: yield of methane, the amount and composition of the digestate (solid residue), purity of biogas, total released CO2, capital and operating costs. Thanks to this collaboration, both institutions will maintain a good and prolific relationship for the next years through exchange students, R&D projects in consortium and scientific manuscripts. Other results of this collaboration were the development of a manuscript that will be sent in November, and the presentation of an oral communication at TERRA en VISION Congress held in Barcelona (Spain).
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Laura Tams

Laura Tams from Technische Universität Berlin (Germany) performed a STSM  at the CIIMAR- Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research of the University of Porto with host Cristina Calheiros to evaluate the potential of natural and recycled materials for green roof systems with the LCA method. The analysis focused on alternatives for the conventional substrate and drainage layer. Three scenarios were evaluated: 1. Conventional layers and substrate 2. Cork implemented as a drainage layer and technical substrate 3. Cork implemented as drainage layer and an alternative soil-like substrate. The usage stage was not implemented as there are to many different options to just force on one. The demolition stage was not implemented as well due to the lack of data. The results of the LCA show that cork has a negative global warming potential of -15.9 kgCO2/m² green roof compared to the synthetic alternatives. Furthermore, it is evident that when substituting the conventionally used expanded clay substrate with its high energy demand in manufacturing by using sand or recycled brick, it has a great potential to reduce the CO2 emissions further. The results show that for creating really sustainable nature based solutions towards a circular city, recycled and natural products play a key role. For the implementation of green roofs local and recyclable resources should seriously be considered.
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Michele Turco

The aim of the STSM was to develop a simple methodology to combine physically-based model at building scale with an urban scale model for the analysis of the hydrological behavior of a green roof. In this way, I applied the HYDRUS-1D model to simulate water flow through the green roof layers at building scale and then combining results from the Hydrus simulations with EPA SWMM model at urban scale. Results from simulations showed that the possibility to connect and combine these two kind of models is possible.Thus, the accurancy of the results in terms of volume reduction and flooding event reduction has been increased by using this methodology.
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Lucia Gusmaroli

During my STSM at Brunel University, I had the opportunity to be introduced to a new research area. Liaising with the hosting research group, I learnt about nature-based solutions (NBS) and their link with circular economy. Since I work in the field of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), I was able give my contribution on the issue of CECs in NBS, focusing on legislation and identifying both research and policy gaps. 
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Siv Lene Gangenes Skar

Siv Lene Gangenes Skar (Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, NO) spent a month at the Agricultural University of Iceland (AUI) to foster collaboration and learning more of developing innovative future systems, researching how circular food production could be combined with tourism and geothermal energy, visiting and learning about AUI facilities, for future collaboration. This STSM made it possible for Cand. Agric. Skar to develop a plan of starting her PhD study. The university has innovative and well educated staff, willing to be in a team developing circular innovative future food systems. While visiting the places, research questions and possible project collaboration were discussed with researchers at the university. For more information on this research contact Siv Lene.
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